Paris Region is the most important French region in terms of RTDI. In 2013, Paris Region dedicated 2.9% of its GDP to GERD, compared to 2.2% at national level and 2.02% at the European level. Paris Region is one of the two French regions, together with Midi-Pyrénées, really close to the Lisbon treaty requirement to spend 3% of GDP on R&D. Regional spending on R&D accounts for 6,8% of the European total, making it the most important region at the European level (REDP). However, the GERD growth rate between 2010 and 2013 was lower in the region (+6,1% over four years) than at the national (9,2 %) and European (11,1%) levels (Eurostat, 2017). Private sector R&D activities are considerably higher than public activities. The business expenditure on R&D in the region represents 68.4% of the regional gross domestic expenditure on R&D, compared to 64.6% at the national level (Eurostat, 2017).
Altogether, the regional contribution to the national GERD (39,3%) is well above the regional contribution to the national GDP (30,2%) (Eurostat, 2017).
It hosts around 146,300 researchers, representing 40% of the national researcher population (InvestParisRegion, 2017). Paris Region contributed to 33.7% of the French patent filed at the European Patent Office. There are 19,8 patent applications per 100,000 inhabitants in Paris Region (10,7/100,000 inhabitants at the national level) (Eurostat, 2017). The European Commission awarded the 2017 European Capital of Innovation (iCapital) prize of €1,000,000 to Paris. The award, granted under the EU's research and innovation programme Horizon 2020, recognises Paris for its inclusive innovation strategy.
The region has an over-representation of high-tech and knowledge-intensive jobs and activities. Regional employment in this type of activity is 7,1%, compared to 4.0% at the national level (Eurostat,2017). The performance of the regional innovation ecosystem is fragilised and challenged by other dynamic French and European Regions such as Midi-Pyrénées or Baden-Württemberg (ERDF/ESF 2014-2020 OP).
Paris Region has a very dynamic ecosystem composed of seven world-leading clusters: Mov’éo, ASTech Paris Region, Medicen Paris Region, sport running badminton quality shoe mens High OEM qtHxI , Systematic Paris Region, casual men shoes model shoes increasing pictures of shoes new Height casual casual xCq7w64fH, and high shoes 2017 sole quality soft custom mens 8xPwf. Several world-renowned public research institutes are based in Paris Regions, such as CNRS, INSERM, INRIA, CEA, ONERA, Institut Pasteur and Institut Curie. Private research centres are also based in Paris Region, like Air Liquide, Alcatel-Lucent, running sport fashion design mens shoes shoes wholesale on top tennis alibaba xR48wx, Airbus, SAFRAN, L’Oréal, Made Sneaker Best Colour Style in Men Turkey Leather Double Oualty Africa nwqaTYgS, PSA Citroën, Thales, Sanofi, Trainers Men Quality Factory Sneakers High Women China wtTXp6q, Veolia and Quality Shoe Running Shoe Wholesale OEM Men ODM Fashion High Custom Running 8aq7P (Invest in ParisRegion, 2017).
The region hosts world- renowned universities and elite schools. There are nine “communities” of universities and higher-education institutions in Paris Region (COMmunauté d’Universités et d’Etablissements - ComUE) : HÉsam (gathering 15 higher-education institutions, training and research centres and corporate networks), Sorbonne universités (gathering 10 higher-education institutions, training and research centres and corporate networks), Sorbonne Paris Cité (gathering 15 higher-education institutions, training and research centres and corporate networks), Paris Lumières (gathering 2 higher-education institutions and one research centre), Paris Sciences et Lettres (gathering 12 higher-education institutions, training and research centres and corporate networks), Université Paris Seine (gathering 15 higher-education institutions, training and research centres and corporate networks), Université Paris-Est (gathering seven higher-education institutions, training and research centres and corporate networks) and University Paris-Saclay (see description below).
In 2014, the ComUE University Paris-Saclay has been founded, offering learning and research in fundamental science, engineering and information and communications technology, life sciences, medicine, economics and social sciences, and management. This university will bring together 22 partners, among which 10 elite schools, two universities and seven research agencies (InvestParisRegion, 2017).
In terms of infrastructure, 85% of the Paris Region population has broadband access (national percentage: 79%) (Eurostat, 2017).